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Sunday, January 8, 2017

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wfkamsඬq isgdKka f–;jkdrduhg ñ, f.jQ lyjkq we;=¿ ishjia .Kkl ldis tl;=jla

wfkamsඬq isgq;=ud nqÿrcdKka jykafiag mQcd lsÍu i|yd f–;jkdrduh bÈlsÍug f–;jkh kue;s bvu ñ,§ .;af;a f–; kue;s isgql=urdf.ks'
fuu bvu ñ,§ .ekSu i|yd wfkamsඬq isgq;=ud .e,a ;=kla mqrjd lyjkq f.keú;a bvu mqrd úisrejd yer tu lyjkq f–; l=udrhdg ,nd§ bvu ,nd.;a nj fn!oaO idys;Hfha lshefõ' ymq;‍f,a ‍fmd,Sish iómfhys mÈxÑ chkkao fmf¾rd i;=j we;s ldis w;ßka merKsu ldis w;r fuu lyjkqo fj;s'
wfkamsඬq isgdKka f–;jkhg ñ, f.jQ lyjkq chkkao fmf¾rd ñ,§ f.k we;af;a bkaÈhdfõ ixpdrhla w;r;=rh'
 fuf,i chkkao kjÈ,a,sfha§ f–;jk lydmk ldishla ñ,§ .;af;a remsh,a ku oyilgh' chkkao ldishlg f.jQ f,dl=u ñ, f.jQfha fnda.i iy isxy, iajia;slh iys; l%s'mQ' 3 jeks ishjfia ldishlghs' ta i|yd Tyq f.jQ uqo, remsh,a 60"000ls'  
Y%S ,xldfõ merKs ldis tl;=lrkakka w;r w;siqúfYaI ldis f.dkakla ysñlrf.k isák chkkao fmf¾rd mqrdK ldis tl;= lsÍu wdrïN lf<a oy;=ka úhe;s fldÆmeáfhl=j isákd ld,fha§h'
uf. wïu úkakUq flfkla' thdg wmQre NdKav ;sfhk fmÜg.ula ;snqK' wïu Th fmÜg.u wermq fj,djg uu tal we;=<g T¿j Tndf.k n,df.k bkakjd' tafl ;sì,d ojila uu i; ld,l ldishla .;a;' tal ;U ldishla' wïu lsõj WU È.gu mrK i,a,s tl;= lrkjkï ú;rla Th ldish .kska lsh,d ymq;‍f,a chkkao fmf¾rdg merKs ldis tl;= lsÍug ohdnr ujf.ka újrK ,enqfKa tfiah' Tyq i;= ldis tl;=fõ iqúfYaIS ;ekla .kakd lyjkqj Tyq ñ,§ .;af;a uqoaÿj m%foaYfha uqia,sï jHdmdßlfhl=f.ks'
fuu lyjkq" lydmk" l¾Imdk lsh,;a y÷kajkjd' ta ldis ms<sn| chkkao fmf¾rdf.a oekqfuka ì|ls' lyjkq hkq l%sia;= mQ¾j miajk ishjfia isg l%sia;= j¾I oyfjks ishji olajd Ndú;dù we;s ldis úfYaIhls' chkkao fmf¾rd mjik mßÈ lyjkq ldish hkq Y; mkyla folg me¨ úg ;rfï ;=kS yevfha ldishls' bry| ixfla; tys Tínjd we;'
l%sia;= mQ¾j mkaish y;<sia ;=fka muK úch we;=¿ msßi furgg meñfKk úg fuu lyjkq ldis /f.k tkakg we;ehs is;sh yel'
miqld,hl lyjkq Y%S ,xldfõo ksIamdokh lrkakg we;ehs is;sh yel' iuyr lyjkq ldisj, Ndr;fha lyjkq ldisj, olakg fkd,efnk" furggu wdfõKsl uqo%d olakg ,eìu tu ielh ;yjqre lrkd fydavqjdjlah' chkkao fmf¾rd i;= merKsu ldish lyjkq jqjo l%sia;= mQ¾j hq.j, ,xldfõ fukau bkaÈhdfõo ~mqrdK~ kue;s ldis j¾.hla Ndú; lr we;' th y;/ia yevfhka hq;= ߧ ldishls' fuys wlaIr olakg ke;' kuq;a .ia" i;=ka" br" u;aiHhka jeks ixfla; tu ldisj, fldgd we;'
chkkao fmf¾rd i;= merKs ldis w;r iajia;sl ldish l%sia;= j¾I fojk ) y;rjk ishjiaj,g wh;ah' miaf,daj,ska ks¾udKh lr we;s fuu iajia;sl ldisfhys iajia;sl ,l=K iy fnda.ila olakg we;' chkkaog iajia;sl ldish ysñùfï miqìï l;djo wdl¾I”h tlls'
wïn,kaf;dgg;a lsf,daóg¾ myla tyd .ul bkak wmamqydñ udud <Û iajia;sl ldishla ;sfhkjhs lsh, ug wdrxÑ jqKd'~~ wmamqydñ udud jhi wjqreÿ wiQjl muK jhfia wfhl= úh' .rd jegqK ksjil jdih l< Tyq iómfhys iajia;sl ldis lSmhlau úh' wïn,kaf;dgg .sh chkkao tajd mÍlaId lr ne,Sh' tajd kshu iajia;sl ldish' chkkao iajia;sl ldishg ñ,la .eiqfõh' ta remsh,a oy oyils' ta .Kkg wmamqydñ udud tlÛ fkdjkd fyhska Tyq iajia;sl ldish ;j ;j;a by< ñ,lg b,aÆfõh' kuq;a remsh,a úismkaoyil uqo,gj;a tu iajia;sl ldish chkkaog úls”ug wmamqydñ udud tlÛ fkdùh' chkkao iajia;sl ldish ñ,§ .ekSfï wdYdj neyer lr wdmiq meñKsfhah'
thska wjqreÿ mylg muK wïn,kaf;dg hk fj,djl wmamqydñ udu,df.a f.j,a me;af;a kslug f.dia n,kakg chkkaog is;aúh' offjksjr Tyq tys hkúg .rd jegqK f.h fjkqjg ;snqfKa fouy,a ukaÈrhls'
wmamqydñ uduf. f.a flda@ chkkao ksji bÈßmsg isá ;reKhl=f.ka úuiSh'
ta uf. ;d;a;d' WkaoE u<d' mrK f.a lv, uu wÆ;a f.hla yeÿjd ;reKhd ms<s;=re ÿkafka lsis .ksxÑhla fkdue;sjh'
;d;a; <Û mrK ldis ;snqK fkao@ chkkao úuiqfõh'
Th tl;= lrf.k ysáfh ;reKhd fmrmßÈu ´kEjg tmdjg mejeiSh'
álla n,kak mq¿jkao@ chkkao kslug úuiSh'
;reKhd ksji we;=<g f.dia merKs ldis lSmhla f.kdfõh' iajia;sl ldish tu merKs ldis w;r úh' b;du;a by< ñ,la f.jd fyda iajia;sl ldish .;hq;=h hk wruqK chkkao ;=< úh'
uy;a;hd leu;s kï remsh,a mkaodyla §,d Th ldish .kak iajia;sl ldish wf;a ;ndf.k tyd fuyd fmr<ñka n,kd chkkaog ;reKhd mejeiSh'
remsh,a úismkaodylgj;a ñ,§.ekSug fkdyels jQ iajia;sl ldish remsh,a mkaodylg chkkao fmf¾rdg ,enqfKa tfiah'
Th merKs ldisj, o%jHuh jákdlula keye' ft;sydisl jákdlula ú;rhs ;sfhkafk' ta ft;sydisl jákdlu okak ñksiaiq w;fr ;uhs ´l by< ñ,lg úlsfKkafka chkkao fmf¾rd mjihs'
wÛ,a Nd.hla È. wÛ,a ld,la m<, ;U máhla jeks jQ merKs ,laIañ ldish o chkkao fmf¾rd i;=h'
,laIaó ldish ,xldfõ Ndú; lr we;af;a l%sia;= j¾I ;=fka isg wg olajd ld,j,h' ,laIaó foaúhf.a rej fuu ldisj, olakg we;s ksid tajd ,laIaó ldis f,i y÷kajd we;' ,laIaó ldish iy ,laIaó ;yvq ldish hkqfjka ldis j¾. foj¾.hla Ndú;ù we;' ls,sfkdÉÑfha l< le”ïj,§ o ;siaiuydrduh wl=ref.dv§ l< le”ïj,§ o fuu ,laIaó ldis ,eì we;' Bhï iy ;=kS ;U ;yvqj,ska fuu ldis ksujd we;'
rjqï yevfhka hq;= rka lyjkq ldisho uOHu hq.h jkúg ,xldfõ Ndú;ù we;' tys tl me;a;l fk¿ï oඬqjla u; isg.;a udkj rEmhls' wksla me;af;a Tgqkakla me<| .;a rc flfkl= wdikhl ys| isák iajrEmhls' ldisfha odrh jgd ;s;a fm<la we;' rc rEmh iu. ~Y%S ,xld úNQ~ hkak fldgd we;' oyjk ishji olajd furg Ndú; jqK fuu rkalyjkqj jákdlï y;rlska Ndú;ù we;' rkalyjkqj thska Nd.h wv lyjkqj h' lyjkqfjka ld, y÷kajd we;af;a ~fo w;~ fyj;a ~m,h~ hkqfjks' ld, y÷kajd we;af;a ~w;~ hkqfjks'
miajk ishji jkúg furg frdau ldis fnfyúka Ndú; ù we;' iS.sßfha isÿl< le”ïj,§ ,enQ ldis tlaoyia yhish wiQyf;ka tlaoyia yhish ye;a;E mylau frdau ldis iy ta wkqidrfhka ks¾udKh l< bkaÿ ) frdau ldish' fï iEu ldishlu tl me;a;l frdau wêrdcHhl=f.a ysi olakg we;' fuf,i ,enqK ldis fndfyduhla f.ù f.dia we;s neúka is;sh yelafla fuu frdau ldis fnfyúka w;ska w; ixprKhù we;s njh'
,xldj mD;=.Sis hg;aúð;hla jQ miq furg Ndú;hg Tjqka rka ldis j¾.hla iy ߧ ldis j¾. ;=kla ksl=;a lr we;' fuu rka ldisj, uqksjrhl=f.a rEmh iu. ksl=;a l< j¾Iho igyka úh' tu rej jgd STHOME hk wl=re Tínjd ;snqKs'
tla ߧ ldis j¾.hla fld<ôka iy .d,a, hk n,fldgq foflkau ksl=;alr ;snqKs' fld<ôka ksl=;a l< ߧ ldisfha tla me;a;l m%;sld,a rdcH ,dxPkh iys;j CL hk wl=re folo .d,af,ka ksl=;a l< ߧ ldisfha m%;sld,a rdcH ,dxPkh iys;j GA wl=re igykaj we;'
´,kao hq.fha ;=Ügq ldisj, Wv me;af;a VOC wl=reo ;=Ügq lSfha ldishlao hkako igykaj ;snqKs' tu VOC wl=re j,g Wäka ;j;a bx.%Sis wl=rla úh' th tu ldish ksl=;a l< ´,kao n,fldgqj msysá m%foaYfha uq,a wl=r úh' fld<ôka ksl=;a l< ldisj, ~C~ o ;%sl=Kdu,fhka ksl=;a l< ldisj, ~T~ o hdmkfhka ksl=;a l< ldisj, ~J~ o .d,af,ka ksl=;a l< ldisj, ~G~ wl=ro igyka úh'
fld<U wÉpq .eiQ ldish wÛ,a ;=kald,la m<,h' wÛ,a ;=kla È.h' tys jákdlu ;=Ügq y;rhs ;=kald,ls' .d,af,a wÉpq .eiQ ldisfha jákdlu ‘b 2’ hkqfjka isxyf,ka igykalr we;' STUIVER hk ´,kao jpkh ‘bia;%sì’ hkqfjka isxy,g fmr<d b,lalug uq,ska ‘b’ hkqfjka i|ykah' ‘b2’ ;=Ügq folhs'
ßlaia fvd,rh" ,kafoaiSka wmg y÷kajd ÿkafka m;d.h hkqfjka m;d.hg mkï fod<yls' ;=Ügq y;<sia wgls'
,xldfõ m%:ujrg uqo,a fkdaÜgqjla Ndú;hg meñKsfha 1785 uehs 10 jk Èkh' th m;d. 25"000 fkdaÜgqjls' ´,kao md,k iufha jekao.%dma kue;s wdKavqldrhd úiska fuh ksl=;a lr we;' miqj m;d. 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 10" 50" 100" 500" 1000 hk jákdlñka tu ,kafoais uqo,a fkdaÜgq ksl=;a úh' tal ,kais fkdaÜgq f,iskao y÷kajhs' bx.%SiSka furg md,k n,h ysñlr.;a miqj 1801§ ;=Ügfõ ;U ldis ;=ka j¾.hla ksl=;a l<y' ta ;=Ügqj" ;=Ügq Nd.h iy ;=Ügq ld‍f,a jákdlugh' tu rjqï ldisj, jfÜg CEYLON GOVERNMENT hkako ta ueo ldisfha jákdluo úh' ldisfha wks;a me;af;a we;a rejla úh'
bx.%SiSka furg ߧ ldis ksl=;a lsÍu wdrïN lf<a 1803§h' tajd m;d. fol" m;d.h iy m;d. Nd.fha ߧ ldish' tu ߧ ldisj, fome;a;o ;U ;=Ügqfõ ldisj, fome;a; fuka úh'
y;r jeks fcda¾Ê rcqf.a ysi tl me;a;l CEYLON)ONE RIX DOLER  iy ksl=;a jQ j¾Iho igykaj m<uq m;d.fha ldish bx.%SiSka ksl=;a lf<a 1821§h'
1831 ckjdß m<uq jk Èk n%s;dkH rch úiska tf;la Y%S ,xldfõ Ndú; jqK ishÆu ;U ldis wj,x.= lrk ,§' mekai" is,sï" mjqï Ndú;h werUqfK bka miqjh' 1837)1901 ld,fha§ úlafgdaßhd /ðkf.a rej iys; ldis ksl=;a úh' 1917)03)01 Èk remsh, iy remsh,a fofla fkdaÜgq ksl=;a úh' remsh,a mky iy remsh,a iShh uqo,a fkdaÜgq furg m%:u jrg ksl=;a jQfha 1919 foieïn¾ wgjk Èkh' tlaoyiakjish úistfla Tlaf;dan¾ m<uqjk Èk m%:u jrg remsh,a oyfha fkdaÜgqj ksl=;a úh'
tlaoyia kjish úis;=fka§ bx.%Sis md,lhka wmQre fkdaÜgq ‍fmd;la ksl=;a lf<ah' tys remsh‍f,a jákdlñka hq;= fld< úismyla" tkï remsh‍f,a fkdaÜgq úismyla we;=<;a úh' tf,iu 1927§ remsh,a foll jákdlu wms fld< úismylska hq;= uqo,a fkdaÜgq ‍fmd;la ksl=;a lf<ah' fï wjia:dj;a ,dxlsl uqo,a ksl=;a lsÍfï úfYaI wjia:dh'  n%s;dkH rch furg Ndú;h i|yd Y; 5" Y; 10" Y; 25 iy Y; 50 fkdaÜgq ksl=;a lf<a tlaoyia kjish y;<sia tfla fmnrjdß m<uqjk Èkh'
chkkao fmf¾rd mjikafka wms fndfyda fokd uqo,aj,g i,a,s lshd ye¢kajQjdg i,a,s hk jpkh uqo,a hk jpkhg iudk jpkhla fkdjk njh' “i,a,s“ hkq ´,kao ldis úfYaIhls' 1732 ld,fha ksl=;a l< ù'´'iS' igyk fh¥ tu ‘i,a,s‘ ldish furgo Ndú; ù we;' b;d ;=kS ldishla jQ ‘i,a,s‘ ´,kaofha m%dka; yhlska ksl=;a lr ;snqKd” hehs chkkao mjikafkah'
nKavdrfj, Ydka; fcdaYma úoHd,fha bf.kqu ,enQ chkkao fmf¾rd jHdmdßlhls' újdylhls' merKs ldis ms<sn| úfYaI oekqula we;s Tyq tu oekqu fnod§ug iQodkïh'

mSg¾ lekshqÜ fmf¾rd


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