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Thursday, August 4, 2016

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fï Èkj, ;dreKHh Wkaudo ù isák
bka§h iqmsß ;rej zrcksldka;aZf.a
Ôú; l;dj fukak

Oxford University Press ys
06 fYa‚fha fm<fmd;aj,go Ôú; l;dj
we;=<;a l=,S jev lrñka" miqj nia
fldkafodia;rjrfhl= f,i fiajh lr"
j¾;udkfha f,dju y÷kk iqmsß pß;h'

óg Èk lsysmhlg fmr f,dj mqrd rgj,a .Kkdjl" NdId /il mßj¾;k iu.ska ;sr.; jQ bka§h iqmsß ;rej ^Super Star& zrcksldka;az rÕk zlnd,sz kï Ñ;%mgh wdodhï jd¾;d ì|fy<ñka id¾:lj ;sr.; fõ' fï W;aidyh tu Ñ;%mgh iïnkaOj úpdrhla f.k taug fkdj fï Èkj, ;dreKHh fu;rï Wkaudo ù isák tu Ñ;%m‘gfha m%Odk pß;hg mK fmdjk wjqreÿ 65 la jQ rðksldka;a kï iqmsß ;rej ms<sn|j wefik f.darkdvqj ^l;dny& ms<sn| fidhd ne,Sugh'


ln,s Ñ;%mgfha mQ¾j m%pdrl mgh wka;¾cd,hg tla jQfha fï j¾Ifha uehs 01 jeksodh' th wka;¾cd,hg tlalr meh 22 la jeks flá ld,hl§ ñ,shk 05 l risl msßila th krUd ;sì‚' tfukau Ñ;%mgh iskud Yd,dj, m%o¾Ykh weröu;a iu. th keröug ck;dj fmdÈ lEy' th bkaÈhdjg muKla wod< fkdùh' Y%S ,xldfõo øúv rislhka tys m<uq o¾Ykh yd fï Èkj, o¾Yk keröugo m%isoaO iskud Yd,d wjg fmdÈlñka isá wjia:d Tnf.a fk; .efgkakg we;'

ta tu Ñ;%mgfha m%Odk pß;hg mKfmdjk mqoa.,hd ksidh' f;drK jeks iaudrl ks¾udKh lr foúhkag mqomQcd lrk wdldrhg lsßj,ska keyeùu" Ñ;%mg Yd,dj ;=<§ ;srhg u,a biSu" w;afmdä .eiSu" lEflda .eiSu jeks isÿùï" bkaÈhdfõ m%isoaO iud.ï Ñ;%mgh keröu i|yd ;u fiajlhkag ksjdvq ,nd§u" Ñ;%mg‘fha m<uq o¾Ykh keröug fkdyelsj ishÈú kid.ekSï jeks isoaê .Kkdjla fï flá ld,h ;=< isÿúh' jhi wjqreÿ 65 la jQ tu jfhdajDoaO ñksid flfrys tjeks Wkaudohla ;sfnkafka wehs@ zlnd,sZ Ñ;%mgh ;sr.; jk fudfydf;a fï úuiqu ta ms<sn|jh' 

ish mshdf.a úfhdaj;a iu. jhi wjqreÿ 05 § uy mdrg jefgk fudyq ;u Ôú;h .eg.id .ekSu i|yd l=,S jev lsÍug fm<Uq‚' l=,S jev lr .;g oekqKq fjfyi ksjd .ekSug Tyq u;aøjHj,g mqreÿ úh' Ôj;aùug iqÿiq ud¾.hla" bkak ysákakg ia:dkhla" w¢kakg we÷ula fyda fkdue;sj iudcfhka fldkajQ fudyqg ta ld,jljdkqfõ§ wiajeis,a,la f.k ÿkafka iskudjhs' iskudjg Tyq f,d,a úh' Tyq tjlg ckm%shj isá Ñ;%mg l:d kdhlhka wkqlrKh lrñka ;ksju rÕmEfõh' flfuka flfuka ld,h f.fjoa§ Tyqf.a {d;sfhl=f.a ud¾.fhka fldkafodia;r /lshdjla Tyqg ysñ úh'

tu /lshdj lrk w;r;=r ;u ys;jf;l=f.a ud¾.fhka iskudjg oelajQ wdYdj ksidu uÿrdisfha iskud mdi,g we;=<;a úh' iskud mdif,ka m%.=K lr.;a rx.k yelshdj" /lshdj lrk w;r;=r nifha msgqmig ù tla tla wjia:dj, rÕoelaùug Tyq fm<UqfKah' tu l%shdoduh nifha .uka l< bkaÈhdfõ m%isoaO iskud wOHlaIjrfhl= jQ fla' nd,pkaøka ksÍlaIKh lf<ah'

Èk .Kkdjl ksÍlaIKfhka wk;=rej nd,pkaøka fï wruqKla fkdue;s fld¨‍ .eghdg ;ud yuqjk f,i wdrdOkd lrhs' l¾Kdgl m%dka;fha Wmka Ysjdð rd´ f,i tu wOHlaIjrhd yuqùug .sh fuu fld¨‍.eghd wdmiq meñfKkafka nd,pkaøka uy;df.a kj iskud ks¾udKh jQ zwmq¾j rd.x.,az ^1975& ^wmQre rd.hka& kue;s Ñ;%mgfha kjl k¿fjl= f,isks' tu Ñ;%mgfha Tyq ksrEmKh l< pß;h ñks;a;= 15lg iSud jqjo tu wjia:dfjka iqmsß ;rejlf.a wd.ukhla isÿfj;ehs nd,pkaøka ;shd k¿fjl= jkakg isysk uejQ hdka;ï wjqreÿ 25 iemsrE tu ;reKhd fyda fkdis;kakg we;'
tfy;a wo jkúg ;ñ,akdvqfõ muKla fkdj f,dalh mqrd úisÍ isák fldaá ixLHd; risl ckhdf.a iqmsß ;rej Tyqh' nd,pkaøka Tyq iskudjg y÷kajd § oYl folla hkakg u;af;ka Tyq fidrd.;a rislhkaf.a uki ;ju;a tf,iu mj;S' Tyq iu. lr<shg meñ‚ 90 oYlfha buy;a ckm%sh;ajhg m;a ir;a l=ud¾" ld¾;sla" úfÊldka;a" ika;shrdÊ" m%N+ jeks iqm%lg k¿jka fï jkúg iskudfõ olakg fkdue;' j¾;udk mrmqr Tjqka y÷kkafkaj;a ke;s ;rïh' j¾;udkfha Tjqkag tu brKu w;a ù ;sìh§ rcksldka;a kue;s fuu k¿jd ;ju;a Ôjudkj isákafka Tyq Wvq iq<Õg yiqfkdù fmdf<dfõ mh.id isg idudkH Èú fmfj;la .; lrk fyhsks'

rðksldka;a jv jvd;a j¾;udk ;reKhkaf.a is;a fidrd.;a oYlho 90 oYlh hehs y÷kajd§ug yelsh'bkaÈhdkq ck iudcfha úYd, jYfhka Ñ;%mg krUkafka ks¾Ok mka;sfha Woúhhs' ks¾Ok mka;sfha pß; ksrEmKh lrñka Okjd§ mka;sh iu. wr., lrk Ñ;%mg .Kkdjla ta ld,jljdkqfõ§ ks¾udKh úh' Tyqf.a brKu wyïnhla jQ ieáfhkau wOHlaIjreka Tyq fjkqfjka ks¾udKh l< ;sr rpkdo Tyqg .e<fmk whqßka" ks¾Ok mka;sh fjkqfjka ks¾udKh lsÍu Tyqf.a fuu id¾:l;ajhg n,mE m%Odk;u lreK f,i y÷kajd§ug yelsh'

Tyq rx.kfhka odhl jQ fndfydauhla l;d jia;= ks¾Ok mka;sh fjkqfjka iy uOHu mka;sh fjkqfjka Tjqkag Ôú;fha§ uqyqKmEug isÿjk .eg¨‍" wr., fjkqfjkau ks¾udKh ù ;snqKo th Tjqkag .%yKh jkafka tu Ñ;%mgj, ;sfnk ;sr rpkh muKlau ksid fkdfõ' ta wdNdih k¿jdf.a ;d;a;aúl rx.kh fya;=fjks' Tyq rÕmE iEu Ñ;%mghlu Tyqf.a rx.k yelshdjka wmQ¾j f,i rx.khka f,i fkdisf;k wdldrfhka f.k taug yels ùu Tyqf.a olaI;djhs' l;d mqj; ksid Ñ;%mgh id¾:lj ;sr.; jQ nj lshkjd fjkqjg rðksldka;a rÕmE ksid tu Ñ;%mgh id¾:l jQjd hehs lshkakg yelsh' tfukau Tyq isák Ñ;%mg i|yd úlg k¿jka wjYH jkafkao ke;' ukao úlg cjksldo fuf;la bkaÈhdfõ ìys jQ ydiH k¿jka yd iudkj bÈßm;a lsÍug Tyq iuf;la jQ ksidfjks' ydiH cjksld fukau igka cjksld" fYdalckl cjksld jeks ish¨‍u cjksld i|yd Tyq wvqjla fkdue;sj idOdrKhla bIag lr ;sfí'

iEu Ñ;%mghlu Tyqg wdfõ‚l jQ rx.k ffY,sh ;=< yeisÍfï ú,dihla fmkakqï lrhs' th w;ska yd YÍrh p,kh lrñka ouk wuq;=u rgdjla" ueðla tlla f,i ye¢kaùugo yelsh' ta iu.u Tyq mjik mqxÑ fonia fldgilska mjd Tyq bfígu fma%laIlhkaf.a YÍr ;=<g wdrEV fõ' ta Tyqf.a yelshdjhs'

WodyrK f,i 1992 j¾Ifha§ ;sr.; jQ zwkakdu,ෛhsz Ñ;%m‘gfha —kdka fid,a,disáhï fihsfjka fid,a, b,a,dÜáhï fihsjkaz ^uu lshk foa lrkjd" lshkake;s foa;a lrkjd& hk fonio" 1995 jif¾§ ;sr.; jQ zuq;a;=z Ñ;%mgfha zkdka tmam jrefjka" tmamqä jrefjka fid,a,s hdrelal=ï f;ßhdÿ" wkd jrjEkaäh kEr;a;s, lklal jrefjkaz ^uu fldhs fj,dfõ" fldfydu thso lsh,d lshkak wudrehs' kuq;a tkak ´fka fj,djg yßhgu tkjd& hk fonio" 1997 j¾Ifha§ ;sr.; jQ zwreKdp,ïz Ñ;%mgfha zwdkavjka fid,a¨‍rdka wreKdp,ï fihsrdï ^foúhka lshkjd" wreKdp,ï lrkjd& hk fonio" 1999 j¾Ifha§ ;sr.; jQ zmvhmamdz Ñ;%mg‘fha ztka j,S" ;ks j,Sz ^uf.a ud¾.h" ;ks ud¾.hla& hk fonio" 1995 j¾Ifha ;sr.; jQ Tyqf.a rislhka Tyqj jv jvd;a je,|.;a znd^wd&Idz Ñ;%mgfha —kdka Tre ;vj fidkakd" kQre ;rj fidkakd udßz ^ uu tl ierhla lSfjd;a" tal ish ierhla lshkjdg iudkhs& hk fonio" 2007 j¾Ifha§ ;sr.; jQ zisjdðz Ñ;%mgfha zmkaks ;dka l+Ügud jreï" wkd isx.ï isx.,d ;dka jreïz ^W!frda ;uhs fmdÈh msáka igkg tkafka" tfy;a isxyhd ;ksju ;uhs igkg tkafka& hk fonia ldKav fmkajdÈh yel' fuu joka Tyq mjikafka ÿIaghka iu. ixjdofha ksr; jk wjia:dj,§ ksidfjka tu wjia:dj,§ Tyq rislhka ;Èkau wdrEV lr.kshs' ta Tyqf.a rx.k yelshdjhs'

tu oialï fiau Tyqf.a iudc i;aldro rdYshla ;sfí' ;uka Wmhk uqo,ska fldgila jeh lr Tyq mj;ajdf.k hk zwdY%ïz kï mdif,a <ud <máka oyia .Kkla my< mka;sfha isg by<u mka;sh olajd j¾;udkfhao fkdñf,au wl=re W.ks;s' tfukau wÕysÕlï .ek fukau mrdð; fmï yeÕ=‍ï .eko fyd¢kau okakd fï wiydh k¿jd ;ñ,akdvqfõ fpkakdhsys zrd.fõkaødz kñka oejeka; W;aij Yd,djla bÈlr újdy Èúhg t<fUk ÿmam;=ka ish oyia .Kkla tys le|jd Tjqkag Tyqf.a úhoñka lEu îu" we÷ï me,÷ï" .Dy NdKav yd ;e,a,o Tyqf.a w;skau ,nd § Tjqkaf.a újdy ux.f,da;aij W;aijY%S‘fhka meje;aùug lghq;= lsÍu Tyqf.a ;j;a i;aldrhls' ;jo ks¾Ok mka;sfha ßhÿrkag ;%sfrdao r: fkdñ,fha ,nd § ;sfí' jHik wjia:dj,§ ish fm!oa.,sl Okh rchg;a fmr wj;ekajQjka fjkqfjka úhoï lsÍug ;rï Tyq fYaIaG ñksfils'

fï fya;= ksid ;ñ,akdvqfõ wka lsisfjl=g;a fkdue;s ckm%sh;ajhlao" l=vd orejdf.a isg Tyqg;a jvd jfhdajDoaO ñksiqka mjd zrðks i¾z hehs wu;k ;rï f.!rjkSh ms<s.ekSulao Tyqg ;sfí' ;ñ,akdvq m%dka;fha foaYmd,khg msúfikakehs Tyqg fld;rï wdrdOkd ;snqKo fï jk;=re;a Tyq thg m%;spdr olajd fkdue;' w;S;fha ks¾Ok mka;sfha Ôj;a ù" j¾;udkfha§;a uq, wu;l fkdlr isák fï ñksidg ;ñ,akdvqfõ uymqgqjg hkakg t;rï uykaishla oeßh hq;= fkdfõ' kuq;a tu ud¾.hg ú;a ñksiqka Tyqg olajk wdorh" lreKdj" f.!rjh ì|oud.ekSug Tyq iQodkï ke;'

;uka iqmsß ;rejla hehs ysi Wÿïudf.k ßis fia Ôj;aùug yelshdj ;snqKo" tfia fkdlr pdï we÷ïj,ska ieriS" ish jdykh ;uka úiskau mojñka" Tyqf.a bÈßhg meñfKk ´kEu uÜgfï mqoa.,fhl=g fow;a tlafldg wdpdr lsÍug ;rï Tyq ksy;udkSh' tfukau Tyq wd.u oyugo oeä keUqrejla olajhs' fma%laIl m%;spdr b;d by< fyhska Tyq jkaokd.ukaj,g iyNd.s jkafka fjia j,df.k lsisÿ wdrlaIfhl= fyda fkdue;sjh' Tyq fl;rï iqmsß ;;a;ajhlg m;ajqjo ´kEu mqoa.,fhl=g ijka§u" fj,djg jev lsÍu" kj mrmqr iu. iqyoj isàu" udkakfhka ysi Wÿïjd fkd.ekSu iy yeuúgu ;u mka;s i.hkaf.a .eg¨‍ fjkqfjka fmkS isàu Tyqf.a id¾:l;ajhg ;j;a fya;= jQ ldrKd f,i fmkajd§ug yelsh'

fï Èkj, wdohï j¾;d ì|fy<ñka ;sr.; jk zlnd,sz Ñ;%mgfha fudyq md;d, kdhlfhl=f.a pß;hlg mK fmõjo Tyq md;d, kdhlfhl= jkafka u;aøjH ksjdrKh lsÍu ioydh' tfukau Tyq u;aøjH Ndú;fhka Ôú;h w;ru. úkdY lr.;a ishoyia .Kkla úÿy,la ;=<§ mqkre;a:dmkh lrhs' tu Ñ;%mgh krUk fma%laIlhkag u;aøjH ksid isÿjk wys;lr n,mEï ms<sn| u.fmkaùu;a" u;aøjH cdjdrïlrejkag úreoaOj ke.S isàug wjYH fm<Uùu;a Tyq ish rx.kh Tiafia ,nd § ;sîu ksid th Tyqf.a id¾:l;ajh ;j ;j;a wre;a .kajhs'

fï w;r Ñ;%mgh id¾:l ùu;a iu.u Tyq Tyqf.au w;awl=ßka ,shQ ,smshla ;u rislhka fjkqfjka ud‘OH fj; ksl=;a lrñka mjid isáfha lnd,s Ñ;%mgh id¾:l jQfha ;u rislhkaf.ka ,enqKq odhl;ajh ksid njhs' tfukau ;ukaf.a wikSm ;;a;ajhka tu m%;spdr Tiafia iqj jQ njhs' rðksldka;a jeks mqoa.,fhl=g tjeks ;=;s ms§ula lsÍug wjYH ke;' kuq;a tu l%shdfjka .uH jkafkao Tyqf.a widudkH jQ ñksi;a nj iy Tyq ;uka by<g Tijd ;enQ rislhka ms<sn|j wu;l fkdfldg we;s nj fkdfõo@

fï ish,af,ysu wjidk m%;sM,h jQfha bka§h úIh ks¾foaYhg iy Oxford University Press ys 06 fYa‚fha fm<fmd;aj,g Tyqf.a Ôú; l;dj we;=<;a lsÍuh' l=,S jev lrñka" miqj nia fldkafodia;rjrfhl= f,i fiajh lr" j¾;udkfha f,dju y÷kk iqmsß pß;hla jQ fudyqf.a Ôú; l;dj bf.kqfuka miq iy Tyq rÕk Ñ;%mg keröfuka miq j¾;udk mrmqro" u;= mrmqro rðksldka;a kï k¿jd ùrfhl= f,i ie,lSu wreuhla fkdfõ'



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